For years now, state laws have required subject organizations to provide notification to affected data subjects and, in some instances, to state agencies, consumer reporting agencies, and the media, when they experience a “breach” of certain categories of information.  And a growing number of states – including California, Colorado, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, Texas, and, most

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), considered the most expansive U.S. privacy laws to date, is set to take effect January 1, 2020. In short, the CCPA places limitations on the collection and sale of a consumer’s personal information and provides consumers certain rights with respect to their personal information. Wondering whether they will have

The GDPR is wrapping up its first year and moving full steam ahead. This principles-based regulation has had a global impact on organizations as well as individuals. While there continue to be many questions about its application and scope, anticipated European Data Protection Board guidance and Data Protection Authority enforcement activity should provide further clarity in the upcoming year. In the meantime, here are a few frequently asked questions – some reminders of key principles under the GDPR and others addressing challenges for implementation and what lies ahead.

Can US organizations be subject to the jurisdiction of the GDPR?

Whether a US organization is subject to the GDPR is a fact-based determination. Jurisdiction may apply where the US organization has human or technical resources located in the EU and processes EU personal data in the context of activities performed by those resources. In cases where the US organization does not have human or technical resources located in the EU, it may be subject to the GDPR’s jurisdiction in two instances: if the organization targets individuals in the EU (not businesses) by offering goods or services to them, regardless of whether payment is required, or if it monitors the behavior of individuals in the EU and uses that personal data for purposes such as profiling (e.g. website cookies, wearable devices). The GDPR may also apply indirectly to a US organization through a data processing agreement.

If we execute a data processing agreement, does that make our US organization subject to the GDPR?

When an organization subject to the GDPR engages a third party to process its EU data, the GDPR requires that the organization impose contractual obligations on the third party to implement certain GDPR-based safeguards. If you are not otherwise subject to the GDPR, executing a data processing agreement will not directly subject you to the GDPR. Instead, it will contractually obligate you to follow a limited, specific set of GDPR-based provisions. Your GDPR-based obligations will be indirect in that they are contractual in nature.

Does the GDPR apply only to the data of EU citizens?

No, the GDPR applies to the processing of the personal data of data subjects who are in the EU regardless of their nationality or residence.

Is our organization subject to the GDPR if EU individuals access our website and make purchases?

If your organization does not have human or technical resources in the EU, the mere accessibility of your website to EU visitors, alone, will not subject you to the GDPR. However, if your website is designed to target EU individuals (e.g. through features such as translation to local language, currency converters, local contact information, references to EU purchasers, or other accommodations for EU individuals) your activities may be viewed as targeting individuals in the EU and subject you to the GDPR.

Are we required to delete an individual’s personal data if they request it?

If your organization is subject to the GDPR, an individual may request that you delete their personal data. However, this is not an absolute right. Your organization is not required to delete the individual’s personal data if it is necessary

  • for compliance with a legal obligation or the establishment, exercise or defense of a legal claim
  • for reasons of public interest (e.g. public health, scientific, statistical or historical research purposes)
  • to exercise the right of freedom of expression or information
  • where there is a legal obligation to keep the data
  • or where you have anonymized the data.

Additional consideration should be given to any response when the individual’s data is also contained in your back-ups.

GDPR principles have started to influence law in the U.S. In fact, many have been watching developments regarding the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which shares a right to delete as it pertains to the personal information of a California resident. Similar to the GDPR, it is not an absolute right and in certain cases an exception may apply. For instances, both law contain an exception from the right to have personal information deleted when the information is needed to comply with certain laws.

Does the GDPR apply to an EU citizen who works in the US?

If your organization is not subject to the GDPR and you hire an EU citizen to work in the US, the GDPR may not apply to the processing of their personal data in the US. However, depending on the circumstances, the answer may be different if the EU citizen is in the US on temporary assignment from an EU parent. In that scenario, their data may be subject to the GDPR if the US entity’s relationship with the parent creates an establishment in the EU, and it processes this data in the context of the activities of that establishment. To the extent the EU parent transfers the EU employee’s personal data from the EU to the US entity, that transfer may require EU-US Privacy Shield certification, the execution of binding corporate rules, or standard contractual clauses. These measures are designed to ensure data is protected when it is transferred to a country, such as the US, that is not deemed to have reasonable safeguards.

Do we need to obtain an EU individual’s consent every time we collect their personal data?

If your organization is subject to the GDPR and processes an EU individual’s information, you must have a “legal basis” to do so. Consent is just one legal basis. In addition to consent, two of the most commonly used legal basis are the “legitimate interests” of your organization and the performance of a contract with the individual. A legitimate interest is a business or operational need that is not outweighed by the individual’s rights (e.g. processing personal data for website security, conducting background checks, or coordinating travel arrangements). Processing necessary to the performance of a contract is activity that enables you to perform a contract entered into with the individual (e.g. processing employee data for payroll pursuant to the employment contract or processing consumer data for shipping goods under a purchase order.)

Should we obtain an employee’s consent to process their personal data?


Continue Reading The GDPR – One Year and Counting

Image result for alexa recordingCalifornia keeps making privacy headlines for its trailblazing California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), set to take effect January 1, 2020, but there is another set of privacy bills making its way through the California state legislature, that, if passed, will provide consumers with further privacy protections.

The “Your Data Your Way” initiative, comprised of four

A security lapse has exposed the data of at least 13.7 million user records of the high-end job recruitment site, Ladders. The company left a cloud-hosted search database exposed without a password. Ladders took the database offline less than an hour after the news website TechCrunch alerted the company after learning about the potential breach

Texans like the adage “Everything is Bigger in Texas”. So, as the Lone Star State follows its counterparts and the federal government in discussing broad sweeping privacy protections, legislators introduced two (competing) privacy bills this session: the Texas Consumer Privacy Act and the Texas Privacy Protection Act.

Readers should note that the 2019 Texas

As wearable and analytics technology continues to explode, professional sports leagues, such as the NFL, have aggressively pushed into this field. (See Bloomberg). NFL teams insert tiny chips into players shoulder pads to track different metrics of their game. During the 2018-2019 NFL season, data was released that Ezekiel Elliot ran 21.27 miles per hour for a 44-yard run, his fastest of the season. The Dallas Cowboys are not alone as all 32 teams throughout the league can access this chip data which is collected via RFID tracking devices. Sports statistics geeks don’t stand a chance as this technology will track completion rates, double-team percentages, catches over expectation, and a myriad of other data points.

There are obvious questions and concerns about the use of this technology, and not just at the professional level. Wearables can be found at all levels of sports and athletic activities, including at colleges and high schools. At the professional level, the NFL is unique in that it allows teams to use the chip data during contract negotiations. However, players do not have full access to this information, unless specifically granted by individual teams. This is important since there is much debate over who truly owns this data. And, for a variety of reasons, players and athletes want to know where their information is stored, how it is stored, whether and how it might be used and disclosed, who has access to it, and what safeguards are in place to protect it. Major League Baseball and the Players Association added Attachment 56 to the 2017-2021 Collective Bargaining Agreement to address some of these concerns. But, again, these and other questions are not unique to professional ball players.

See the source imageWith devices ranging from wearable monitors to clothing and equipment with embedded sensors, professional teams, colleges and universities, local school districts, and other sports and athletic institutions, as well as the companies that provide the wearables, can now collect massive amounts of data such as an athlete’s heart rate, glucose level, breathing, gait, strain, or fatigue. On the surface, this data may relate to an athlete’s performance and overall wellness, which may be somewhat apparent to onlookers without the aid of the device. However, alone or aggregated, the data may reveal more sensitive personal information relating to the athlete’s identity, location, or health status, information that cannot be obtained just by closely observing the individual. When organizations collect, use, share, or store this data, it creates certain privacy and security risks and numerous international, federal, and state data protection laws may apply. Any sports or athletic organization that develops a wearable device program, or has reason to believe that these devices are being used by coaches and others to collect similar data, should be mindful of these risks and regulatory issues.

Below is a non-exhaustive list of some of these laws:
Continue Reading As Wearable Technology Booms, Sports and Athletic Organizations at all Levels Face Privacy Concerns

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), passed in 2018 and taking effect January 1, 2020, is considered the most expansive state privacy law in the United States, and sparked a flurry of state privacy law legislative proposals, in particular in Washington state. This January, a group of state senators in Washington introduced the Washington Privacy

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which goes into effect January 1, 2020, is considered the most expansive state privacy law in the United States. Organizations familiar with the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which became effective on May 25, 2018, certainly will understand CCPA’s implications. Perhaps the best known comprehensive privacy and