On September 17, 2021, a three-judge panel of the Illinois Appellate Court for the First Judicial District issued a long-awaited decision regarding the statute of limitations for claims under the state’s Biometric Information Privacy Act (“BIPA”) in Tims v. Black Horse Carriers, Inc. The Tims decision marks the first appellate guidance regarding this issue.  Although the BIPA is silent as to the applicable statute of limitations, the panel concluded that claims brought under section 15(a), (b), and (e) of the statute, which are the claims requiring companies to have a publicly available policy, obtain informed consent, and reasonably safeguard biometric data, are subject to a five-year limitations period.  BIPA claims brought under sections 15(c) and (d) of the statute, which are the claims which prohibit profiting from the use of biometric data or disclosure of biometric data are subject to a one-year statute of limitations.

In reaching its split decision regarding the applicable statute of limitations, the panel noted that each duty under the BIPA is “separate and distinct,” and that a private entity “could violate one of the duties while adhering to others.”  The panel further opined that “a plaintiff who alleges and eventually proves violation[s] of multiple duties could collect multiple recoveries of liquidated damages.” The panel looked to the text of the BIPA without consideration of the legislative history of the statute, and precedent, including the Illinois Supreme Court’s decision in Rosenbach v. Six Flags Entertainment Corp., in reaching its conclusion.

Section 13-201 of the Illinois Code of Civil Procedure provides that there is a one-year statute of limitations for “actions for slander, libel or for publication  matter violating the right of privacy,” while section 13-205 has a five-year “catchall” statute of limitations for “all civil actions not otherwise provided for.”  The panel concluded that 13-201 does not apply to all privacy actions, but rather only privacy actions “where publication is an element or inherent part of the action.”  On these grounds, the panel determined that section 13-201’s one-year statute of limitations only applies to BIPA claims under sections 15(c) and (d) of the statute, which prohibit entities from “sell[ing], leas[ing], trad[ing], or otherwise profit[ing] from” or disclosing biometric data. With respect to those claims, the panel held that “publication or disclosure of biometric data is clearly an element of an action.”

Conversely, the panel concluded that claims under sections 15(a), (b), and (e) “have absolutely no element of publication or dissemination,” and thus, the five-year “catchall” statute of limitations applies.

In Tims, the First District was not asked, nor did it decide, the issue of when a claim under the BIPA accrues.  However, the accrual issue is currently the subject of an appeal before the federal Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals in Cothron v. White Castle.  The Seventh Circuit heard oral argument in Cothron on September 14, 2021, and has been asked by the plaintiff-appellant to certify the accrual issue to the Illinois Supreme Court for consideration.  In Marion v. Ring Container, the Illinois Appellate Court for the Third Judicial District is set to decide whether a one-year, two-year, or five-year statute of limitations applies to claims under the BIPA.  The Marion appeal is currently stayed pending a decision in McDonald v. Symphony Bronzeville, in which the Illinois Supreme Court will decide with finality whether BIPA claims arising in the employment context are preempted by the Illinois Workers’ Compensation Act.

There has been an influx of biometric privacy litigation in recent years. Private entities that collect, use, and store biometric data increasingly face compliance obligations as the law attempts to keep pace with ever-evolving technology. Creating a robust privacy and data protection program or regularly reviewing an existing one can mitigate risk and ensure legal compliance.

 

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Photo of Jody Kahn Mason Jody Kahn Mason

Jody Kahn Mason is a Principal in the Chicago, Illinois, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. and is a contributor to the Disability, Leave & Health Management Blog. She is an experienced employment law litigator and defends employers before federal and state courts and…

Jody Kahn Mason is a Principal in the Chicago, Illinois, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. and is a contributor to the Disability, Leave & Health Management Blog. She is an experienced employment law litigator and defends employers before federal and state courts and administrative agencies throughout the Midwest.  She also regularly provides advice and counsel to clients regarding challenges relating to the implementation of the ADA, FMLA, and similar state and local laws.

Learn more about Ms. Mason on the Jackson Lewis website.

Photo of Joseph J. Lazzarotti Joseph J. Lazzarotti

Joseph J. Lazzarotti is a principal in the Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He founded and currently co-leads the firm’s Privacy, Data and Cybersecurity practice group, edits the firm’s Privacy Blog, and is a Certified Information Privacy Professional (CIPP)…

Joseph J. Lazzarotti is a principal in the Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He founded and currently co-leads the firm’s Privacy, Data and Cybersecurity practice group, edits the firm’s Privacy Blog, and is a Certified Information Privacy Professional (CIPP) with the International Association of Privacy Professionals. Trained as an employee benefits lawyer, focused on compliance, Joe also is a member of the firm’s Employee Benefits practice group.

In short, his practice focuses on the matrix of laws governing the privacy, security, and management of data, as well as the impact and regulation of social media. He also counsels companies on compliance, fiduciary, taxation, and administrative matters with respect to employee benefit plans.

Privacy and cybersecurity experience – Joe counsels multinational, national and regional companies in all industries on the broad array of laws, regulations, best practices, and preventive safeguards. The following are examples of areas of focus in his practice:

  • Advising health care providers, business associates, and group health plan sponsors concerning HIPAA/HITECH compliance, including risk assessments, policies and procedures, incident response plan development, vendor assessment and management programs, and training.
  • Coached hundreds of companies through the investigation, remediation, notification, and overall response to data breaches of all kinds – PHI, PII, payment card, etc.
  • Helping organizations address questions about the application, implementation, and overall compliance with European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and, in particular, its implications in the U.S., together with preparing for the California Consumer Privacy Act.
  • Working with organizations to develop and implement video, audio, and data-driven monitoring and surveillance programs. For instance, in the transportation and related industries, Joe has worked with numerous clients on fleet management programs involving the use of telematics, dash-cams, event data recorders (EDR), and related technologies. He also has advised many clients in the use of biometrics including with regard to consent, data security, and retention issues under BIPA and other laws.
  • Assisting clients with growing state data security mandates to safeguard personal information, including steering clients through detailed risk assessments and converting those assessments into practical “best practice” risk management solutions, including written information security programs (WISPs). Related work includes compliance advice concerning FTC Act, Regulation S-P, GLBA, and New York Reg. 500.
  • Advising clients about best practices for electronic communications, including in social media, as well as when communicating under a “bring your own device” (BYOD) or “company owned personally enabled device” (COPE) environment.
  • Conducting various levels of privacy and data security training for executives and employees
  • Supports organizations through mergers, acquisitions, and reorganizations with regard to the handling of employee and customer data, and the safeguarding of that data during the transaction.
  • Representing organizations in matters involving inquiries into privacy and data security compliance before federal and state agencies including the HHS Office of Civil Rights, Federal Trade Commission, and various state Attorneys General.

Benefits counseling experience – Joe’s work in the benefits counseling area covers many areas of employee benefits law. Below are some examples of that work:

  • As part of the Firm’s Health Care Reform Team, he advises employers and plan sponsors regarding the establishment, administration and operation of fully insured and self-funded health and welfare plans to comply with ERISA, IRC, ACA/PPACA, HIPAA, COBRA, ADA, GINA, and other related laws.
  • Guiding clients through the selection of plan service providers, along with negotiating service agreements with vendors to address plan compliance and operations, while leveraging data security experience to ensure plan data is safeguarded.
  • Counsels plan sponsors on day-to-day compliance and administrative issues affecting plans.
  • Assists in the design and drafting of benefit plan documents, including severance and fringe benefit plans.
  • Advises plan sponsors concerning employee benefit plan operation, administration and correcting errors in operation.

Joe speaks and writes regularly on current employee benefits and data privacy and cybersecurity topics and his work has been published in leading business and legal journals and media outlets, such as The Washington Post, Inside Counsel, Bloomberg, The National Law Journal, Financial Times, Business Insurance, HR Magazine and NPR, as well as the ABA Journal, The American Lawyer, Law360, Bender’s Labor and Employment Bulletin, the Australian Privacy Law Bulletin and the Privacy, and Data Security Law Journal.

Joe served as a judicial law clerk for the Honorable Laura Denvir Stith on the Missouri Court of Appeals.

Photo of Jason C. Gavejian Jason C. Gavejian

Jason C. Gavejian is a principal in the Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. and co-leader of the firm’s Privacy, Data and Cybersecurity practice group. Jason is also a Certified Information Privacy Professional (CIPP/US) with the International Association of Privacy…

Jason C. Gavejian is a principal in the Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. and co-leader of the firm’s Privacy, Data and Cybersecurity practice group. Jason is also a Certified Information Privacy Professional (CIPP/US) with the International Association of Privacy Professionals.

As a Certified Information Privacy Professional (CIPP/US), Jason focuses on the matrix of laws governing privacy, security, and management of data. Jason is co-editor of, and a regular contributor to, the firm’s Workplace Privacy, Data Management & Security Report blog.

Jason’s work in the area of privacy and data security includes counseling international, national, and regional companies on the vast array of privacy and security mandates, preventive measures, policies, procedures, and best practices. This includes, but is not limited to, the privacy and security requirements under state, federal, and international law (e.g., HIPAA/HITECH, GDPR, California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), FTC Act, ECPA, SCA, GLBA etc.). Jason helps companies in all industries to assess information risk and security as part of the development and implementation of comprehensive data security safeguards including written information security programs (WISP). Additionally, Jason assists companies in analyzing issues related to: electronic communications, social media, electronic signatures (ESIGN/UETA), monitoring and recording (GPS, video, audio, etc.), biometrics, and bring your own device (BYOD) and company owned personally enabled device (COPE) programs, including policies and procedures to address same. He regularly advises clients on compliance issues under the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) and has represented clients in suits, including class actions, brought in various jurisdictions throughout the country under the TCPA.

Jason represents companies with respect to inquiries from the HHS/OCR, state attorneys general, and other agencies alleging wrongful disclosure of personal/protected information. He negotiates vendor agreements and other data privacy and security agreements, including business associate agreements. His work in the area of privacy and data security includes counseling and coaching clients through the process of investigating and responding to breaches of the personally identifiable information (PII) or protected health information (PHI) they maintain about consumers, customers, employees, patients, and others, while also assisting clients in implementing policies, practices, and procedures to prevent future data incidents.

Jason represents management exclusively in all aspects of employment litigation, including restrictive covenants, class-actions, harassment, retaliation, discrimination, and wage and hour claims in both federal and state courts. He regularly appears before administrative agencies, including the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the Office for Civil Rights (OCR), the New Jersey Division of Civil Rights, and the New Jersey Department of Labor. Jason’s practice also focuses on advising/counseling employers regarding daily workplace issues.

Jason’s litigation experience, coupled with his privacy practice, provides him with a unique view of many workplace issues and the impact privacy, data security, and social media may play in actual or threatened lawsuits.

Jason regularly provides training to both executives and employees and regularly speaks on current privacy, data security, monitoring, recording, BYOD/COPE, biometrics (BIPA), social media, TCPA, and information management issues. His views on these topics have been discussed in multiple publications, including the Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, San Francisco Chronicle (SFGATE), National Law Review, Bloomberg BNA, Inc.com, @Law Magazine, Risk and Insurance Magazine, LXBN TV, Business Insurance Magazine, and HR.BLR.com.

Jason is the co-leader of Jackson Lewis’ Hispanic Attorney resource group, a group committed to increasing the firm’s visibility among Hispanic-American and other minority attorneys, as well as mentoring the firm’s attorneys to assist in their training and development. He also previously served on the National Leadership Committee of the Hispanic National Bar Association (HNBA) and regularly volunteers his time for pro bono matters.

Prior to joining Jackson Lewis, Jason served as a judicial law clerk for the Honorable Richard J. Donohue on the Superior Court of New Jersey, Bergen County.